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Abstract

This article was retracted by author.


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This paper firstly investigates the perception of the Ottoman Turks on China and Chinese which was reflected in “Khitaynameh” (Book of China) by Ali Ekber and “Kitab-ı Tevarih-i Padişahan-ı Vilayet-i Hindu ve Hitây” (Book on the Histories of the Rulers of the India and China) by Seyfî Çelebi. These were two typical historical geographical works written in the 16th century, indicating the interest of the Ottoman Turks in the country and people of China during the Ming Dynasty. Both works contain valuable records of China’s topography, history, economy, social life and traditional customs. The Ottoman Turks used the term Khitay (Hitay) and Chin to talk about China in these works. Next, the paper analyzes the Chinese perception on the Ottoman Turks and explicates the origin of name Lumi (Rumi State). Then, according to the official records of the Ming Dynasty, the paper describes the major events of the relations between the Ming Dynasty and the Ottoman Empire in the 16th-17th centuries. Based on the chronicles of Mingshi (History of the Ming Dynasty), the Ottoman Turks sent their envoys seven times to China in 1524, 1527, 1559, 1564, 1576, 1581 and 1618. According to Ming shilu (Veritable Records of the Ming) and Da Ming hui dian (Collected Statues of the Great Ming), the Ottoman delegations paid visits to China for a total of 19 times. And one of the particular details recorded is that because the Ottoman Empire often sent the tributes of lions and rhinoceroses to the Ming court, the relations between the two countries during this period were expresed in a metaphorical way as “lion diplomacy”.



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Article Details

Issue: Vol 4 No 2 (2020)
Page No.: 346-356
Published: Jun 5, 2020
Section: Research Article - Social Sciences
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32508/stdjssh.v4i2.551

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Creative Commons License

Copyright: The Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 How to Cite
An, L. (2020). RETRACTED: Ottoman historical sources regarding China and the diplomatic Relations between the Ming Dynasty and the Ottoman Empire in the records of Mingshi. Science & Technology Development Journal - Social Sciences & Humanities, 4(2), 346-356. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.32508/stdjssh.v4i2.551

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